|“||We have been born into this land, charged with the historic mission of regenerating the nation.||„|
|~ Park Chung-hee, The Charter of National Education of Korea, 1968|
Park Chung-hee (Hangul: 박정희; Hanja: 朴正熙; 14 November 1917 – 26 October 1979) was a South Korean politician and general who served as the President of South Korea from 1963 until his assassination in 1979, assuming that office after first ruling the country as head of a military junta installed by the May 16 coup in 1961. Before his presidency, he was the chairman of the Supreme Council for National Reconstruction from 1961 to 1963 after a career as a military leader in the South Korean army. During World War II, he served in the Manchukuo Imperial Army, which was a division of the armed forces of Imperial Japan.
Park was born on 14 November 1917, in Gumi, North Gyeongsang in Korea under Japanese rule, to parents Park Sung-bin and Bek Nam-eui. He was the youngest of five brothers and two sisters in a poor Yangban family. Extremely intelligent, egotistic and ambitious, Park's hero from his boyhood on was Napoleon Bonaparte, and he frequently expressed much disgust that he had to grow up in the poor and backward countryside of Korea, a place that was not suitable for someone like himself. Those who knew Park as a youth recalled that a recurring theme of his remarks was his wish to "escape" from the Korean countryside. As someone who had grown up under Japanese rule, Park often expressed his admiration for Japan's rapid modernization after the Meiji Restoration of 1867 and for Bushido ("the way of the warrior"), the Japanese warrior code.
As a youth, he won admission to a teaching school in Daegu and worked as a teacher in Mungyeong-eup after graduating in high school, but was reportedly a very mediocre student. Following the outbreak of the Second Sino-Japanese War, the ambitious Park decided to enter the Changchun Military Academy of the Manchukuo Imperial Army, with help from Imperial Japanese Army Colonel Arikawa (a drill instructor at the teaching school in Daegu who was impressed by Park's military ambitions). During this time, he adopted the Japanese name Takagi Masao (高木正雄). He graduated top of his class in 1942 (receiving a gold watch from the Emperor Puyi himself) and was recognized as a talented officer by his Japanese instructors, who recommended him for further studies at the Imperial Japanese Army Academy in Japan.
Against this backdrop of social instability and division, Major General Park formed the Military Revolutionary Committee. When he found out that he was going to be retired within the next few months, he sped up the Committee's plans. It led a military coup on 16 May 1961, which was nominally led by Army Chief of Staff Chang Do-yong after his defection on the day it started. The military takeover rendered powerless the democratically elected government of President Yun, ending the Second Republic.
Park's coup brought an end to the interim government of the Second Republic and his election and inauguration in 1963 ushered in the Third Republic. Seeking to bring South Korea into the developed world, Park began a series of economic policies that brought rapid economic growth and industrialization to the nation that eventually became known as the Miracle on the Han River. South Korea became one of the fastest growing nations during the 60s and 70s as a result.
He aided the United States during the Vietnam War, with South Korean troops fighting alongside American troops. n return for troop commitments, South Korea received tens of billions of dollars in grants, loans, subsidies, technology transfers, and preferential markets, all provided by the Johnson and Nixon administrations. In early July 1970, a year after United States President Nixon declared the Guam doctrine in 1969, the Park Chung-hee administration began to devise a nuclear weapons program, right after the notification . As planned, the United States withdrew the USFK's 7th Division in March 1971. It is known that President Park Chung-hee felt a grave betrayal by the United States' unilateral decision to withdraw US troops from Korea. From then on, he began to develop nuclear weapons in earnest as part of his independent defense policy. The Park Chung-hee administration's nuclear development plan was overseen by the second economic director of the Blue House, established in 1971, and the Defense Scientific Research Institute and the Weapons Development Committee were in charge of practical development. .
Although popular during the 60s by the 70s as growth began to slow Park's popularity started to wane resulting in a close victory during the 1971 South Korean presidential election. Following this in 1972, Park declared martial law and amended the constitution into a highly authoritarian document called the Yushin Constitution. Formally, the pretense was that the Yushin Constitution was the seventh Constitutional amendment. In actuality, its effect was tantamount to an abolishment of the former Constitution—effectively creating a new one in an effort to legitimize the new Fourth Republic. During this time political opposition and dissent was constantly repressed and Park had complete control of the Media and Military. Park Chung-hee's regime promoted the VAT Act to secure stable tax sources and increase consumption tax through transparency in transactions, which was prepared in 1971 when the Tax Council decided to introduce comprehensive income tax and VAT in the direction of a long-term tax system. It was passed by the National Assembly in December and took effect in July of the following year. However, large companies have slush laid difficult due to the implementation of VAT law and not based on the ordinary self of Park Chung-hee regime have been turned to such end This the implementation December 1978 10th parliamentary elections in the Democratic Republican Party New Democratic Party and tongildang including The defeat of the opposition party shook the foundation of the Park Chung-hee regime.
Park Jung-hee , who has been late for years, lost her hair every morning shower due to hair loss , suffered from sciatic nerve pain, and when the pain was severe, he could not sit in a chair and paid for documents. There is a claim that it had a will. In this regard, some claim that the drafting of the amendment to the Yushin Constitution was directed to Shin Jiksoo, the former head of the Central Intelligence Agency. Former Prime Minister Nam Deok-woo said, “To me, the Yushin Constitution’s method of electing the president is foolish.
1974 , Yuk Young-soo Mrs. later, a year been assassinated by Mun Se-Gwang 1975 years 8 Mon. 6 days there , Gyeongsangnam-do Geoje called 'days' (一首) in Qinghai for in the jangmokmyeon I when I wrote the (詩) and his wife, Yuk Young-soo Mrs. It contains the content that when I came to the place I used to walk alone, my longing for my wife became more desperate. The poem he wrote was also released in 2004 as an album titled'Where I Played with Im' by singer Nam Sang-gyu.
In 1975, Park ordered homeless people to be removed from the streets of Seoul. Thousands of people were captured by the police and sent to thirty-six camps. The detainees were then used as free labor by the authorities and subjected to degrading treatment. Many died under torture.
Park survived several previous attempts to kill him, including two operations associated with North Korea that were directly ordered by Kim Il-sung. Following the student uprising later known as the Bu-Ma Democratic Protests, Park was assassinated on 26 October 1979 by his close friend Kim Jae-gyu, six days after the student protests ended the director of the Korean Central Intelligence Agency, at a safe house in Seoul, Park was wounded in the chest but was able to take refuge finally he was cornered by Km in a bathroom and executed with a shot in the head. Cha Ji-chul, chief of the Presidential Security Service, was also fatally shot by Kim. Kim and his many accomplices were captured, tortured, tried, convicted and executed as Choi Kyu-hah became Acting President pursuant to the Yushin Constitution's Article 48. Major General Chun Doo-hwan quickly amassed sweeping powers after his Defense Security Command was charged with investigating the assassination, first taking control of the military and the KCIA before installing another military junta and finally assuming the presidency in 1980. Whether the assassination was spontaneous or premeditated is something that remains unclear today—the motivations of Kim Jae-gyu are still debated.
Economic growth continued after Park's death and the country eventually democratized. Later presidents included his daughter Park Geun-Hye as well as people arrested under Park's regime. Park is a controversial figure in modern South Korean political discourse and among the South Korean populace in general for his dictatorship and undemocratic ways. While some credit him for sustaining the Miracle on the Han River, which reshaped and modernized South Korea, others criticize his authoritarian way of ruling the country (especially after 1971) and for prioritizing economic growth and contrived social order at the expense of civil liberties.