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João Bernardo "Nino" Vieira (27 April 1939 – 2 March 2009) was a Bissau-Guinean politician who was the President of Guinea-Bissau from 1980 to 1984, for the second time from 1984 to 1999, and for the third time from 2005 to 2009. On November 14, 1980, Vieira overthrew the government of Luís Cabral in Cape Verde, bringing to power the African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde (PAIGC), Vieira's party. The constitution was suspended and a nine-member military council (chaired by Vieira himself) was installed, and he won a multiparty presidential election in 1994. He was ousted at the end of the 1998–1999 civil war and went into exile. Vieira was affiliated with Amílcar Cabral's African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde (PAIGC) in 1960 and quickly became a key element in the country's guerrilla warfare against the Portuguese regime.
On November 14, 1980, Vieira overthrew the government of Luís Cabral in Cape Verde, bringing the African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde (PAIGC), Vieira's party, to power. The constitution was suspended and a nine-member military council (chaired by Vieira himself) was installed. Since then, the country has been oriented towards a liberal economy. The budget cuts were made at the expense of the social sector and education. Has been accused of fomenting xenophobia towards Cape Verdeans this resulted in a division of the Paigc
In June 1986 six politicians were executed for being involved in a failed coup against him. However, the vieira regime outlawed the death penalty in the African country in 1993.
In 1994 the presidential elections were held, in which Viera received 46.20% of the votes against seven other candidates. Vieira came first, but did not achieve the minimum amount to win the elections. The second round was held on August 3 of that year. Vieira won in the second round with 52.02% of the votes against Kumba Yalá's 47.98%. Vieira was sworn in as the first democratic president of Guinea-Bissau on September 29, 1994.
On May 7, 1999, Vieira was overthrown. He sought refuge in the Portuguese embassy and then went into exile in Portugal.
After President Kumba Yalá was overthrown in a military coup in September 2003 by General Veríssimo Correia Seabra, Vieira returned to the capital Bissau from Portugal on April 7, 2005. Descending to the city's main soccer stadium, was received by more than 5,000 supporters. Although Vieira's supporters had collected 30,000 signatures for a petition urging him to run for president, he did not immediately confirm his intention to do so, saying he would return "to restore his civic rights and register to vote in the next election" and that I wanted to contribute to peace and stability. He also said that he had forgiven his enemies and that he hoped others would forgive him for any harm he caused. On April 16, it was announced that he intended to stand as a candidate in the June 2005 presidential election in Guinea-Bissau. Although Vieira was deemed by many to be ineligible because he had been living in exile and due to the legal charges against him related to the 1985 murders of alleged coup plotters, the Supreme Court authorized him to stand for election in May 2005 along with Yet the. The court ruled unanimously in favor of his candidacy, claiming that he had already ended his exile when he returned in April and that no court records of the murder charges could be found. His old party, the PAIGC, endorsed former interim president Malam Bacai Sanhá as its candidate.
Elections were held in June 2005. Vieira obtained 28.87% of the votes, behind his opponent, Malam Bacai Sanhá. In the second round, Vieira won with 52.35% of the votes and was sworn in as president on October 1 of that year.
On October 28, 2005, Vieira announced the dissolution of the government led by his rival, Prime Minister Carlos Gomes Junior, on November 2 of that year, naming Aristides Gomes as Prime Minister.
Vieira survived a previous assassination attempt in November 2008 in his presidential palace where he remained hidden under his bedroom, Vieira declared that the sole objective of the coup was to assassinate him.
In the early morning of March 2, 2009, two months before his 70th birthday, President Vieria was assassinated in an attack by the militias of the African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde. The militia claimed that Vieira was behind the assassination of its leader, Batista Tagme Na Wai, chief of staff of the Guinea-Bissau armed forces and an opponent of Vieira, who was killed the day before, this general denounced that a group of soldiers opened fire on his car in past January. The France-Presse agency quoted a doctor who participated in Vieira's autopsy as saying that he was "savagely beaten before several bullets were fired at him." According to British author Frederick Forsyth, who was in Bissau at the time of the attack, alleged a more detailed account of the assassination of the president. He claimed that during a lunch with the forensic pathologist investigating the case, he was informed that Vieira was beaten to death by soldiers wielding machetes at his mother-in-law's house. According to this account, Vieira survived an explosion and the collapse of the roof of the presidential villa and was then shot when he wounded out of the damaged building; however, he remained alive until he was taken to his mother-in-law's house and beaten and shot to death. Forsyth attributed the bloody events to mutual hatred between Vieira and Tagme Na Waie, and characterized them both as violent people.
The army denied that Vieira's murder represented a kind of coup d'état and said that they would follow the constitutional order, the president of the National People's Assembly, Raimundo Pereira would succeed Vieira. Colonel Tcham Na Man, born in February 1953, was identified as one of the perpetrators of the assassination of the Bisaoguinean president, he affirmed that he was savagely tortured by the president's regime and that he harbored a deep hatred for Vieira.