Jonas Savimbi

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Jonas Savimbi
Jonas Savimbi.jpg
Full Name: Jonas Malheiro Savimbi
Alias: Dollar Savimbi
The Black Rooster
Origin: Munhango, Bié, Portuguese Angola
Occupation: President of UNITA (1966 - 2002)
Goals: Take control of Angola (failed)
Defeat the MPLA (failed)
Crimes: War crimes
Terrorism
Mass murder
Torture
Arson
Kidnapping
Type of Villain: Warlord


Anyone who does not have a cause for which they will fight and, if necessary, die, is not worth living.
~ Jonas Savimbi

Jonas Malheiro Savimbi (3 August 1934 – 22 February 2002) was an Angolan revolutionary politician and military leader who founded and led the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA).

UNITA first waged a guerrilla war against Portuguese colonial rule, 1966–1974, then confronted the People's movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) lead by President José Eduardo dos Santos during the Angolan Civil War up until Savimbi's death in a clash with government troops in 2002.

Biography

The son of a railroad stationmaster, Savimbi was educated in mission schools and won a scholarship to study abroad. He studied medicine at the University of Lisbon in Portugal and then obtained a doctorate in political science at the University of Lausanne, Switzerland, in 1965.

In 1961 Savimbi joined the Angolan independence leader Holden Roberto’s Popular Union of Angola (UPA), the rival of the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA). He broke with the UPA’s leader in 1966 and formed the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), which fought against Portuguese colonial rule.

During the Cold War, Savimbi and UNITA were heavily supported by the United States, particularly during the years of Henry Kissinger's diplomatic service and during the Reagan Administration. They were also supported by the Apartheid government of South Africa.

Savimbi was the only Angolan guerrilla leader who continued fighting within Angola until the nation reached independence from Portugal in 1975; by this time he had expanded his initially small band of supporters into a guerrilla army numbering in the thousands. UNITA was based in southeastern Angola and relied for its support on the Ovimbundu people, the largest ethnic group in the country. At various times, Savimbi obtained support from China, South Africa, and the United States as a counter to the Marxist, Soviet-supported MPLA, which controlled the central government.

Savimbi continued to wage a disruptive guerrilla war against the MPLA throughout the 1970s and ’80s. In 1991 he signed a peace agreement with the MPLA-led Angolan government that halted the civil war and resulted in free, multiparty national elections in 1992.

After losing these elections, Savimbi and UNITA resumed their military struggle for control of the country, with UNITA dominating most of the countryside. Talks were held again, leading to the Lusaka Accord of 1994: hostilities were to cease and forces were to be disengaged. José Eduardo dos Santos, president of Angola, offered Savimbi one of two vice-presidential positions, and UNITA was also to be part of the government. Savimbi subsequently rejected the position and was officially designated leader of the opposition in 1997, a position that was rescinded in 1998. In 1996 Savimbi indicated that he would retain control of the lucrative diamond regions in northeastern Angola, although some were transferred to the government in 1998.

Savimbi faced opposition from within UNITA in September 1998 when a group calling itself UNITA-R suspended him and became the self-declared leadership. From that point UNITA was split into three factions. The Angolan government and the Southern African Development Community recognized UNITA-R as the official representative of UNITA. Nevertheless, Savimbi requested the renewal of negotiations in March 2001, and he further indicated a willingness to accept the terms of the Lusaka Accord. While the government demanded a cease-fire as a condition for initiating new talks and Savimbi called for the Roman Catholic church to mediate the dispute, fighting continued throughout 2001 and spilled into the neighbouring countries of Zambia and Namibia. Government troops continued to pursue Savimbi and finally caught up with him in the eastern province of Moxico. After Savimbi’s death, a peace agreement between UNITA and the Angolan government was signed in April 2002.

Savimbi was succeeded by António Dembo, who assumed UNITA’s leadership on an interim basis in February 2002. But Dembo had sustained wounds in the same attack that killed Savimbi, and he died from them ten days later and was succeeded by Paulo Lukamba.

Six weeks after Savimbi's death, a ceasefire between UNITA and the MPLA was signed, but Angola remains deeply divided politically between MPLA and UNITA supporters. Parliamentary elections in September 2008 resulted in an overwhelming majority for the MPLA, but their legitimacy was questioned by international observers.

In the years since Savimbi's death, his legacy has been a source of debate. "The mistake that Savimbi made, the historical, big mistake he made, was to reject (the election) and go back to war," Alex Vines, head of the Africa program at London-based Chatham House research institute said in February 2012. University of Oxford Africa expert Paula Roque says Savimbi was "a very charismatic man, a man who exuded power and leadership. We can't forget that for a large segment of the population, UNITA represented something."

He was survived by "several wives and dozens of children," the latter numbering at least 25.

Trivia

  • Savimbi was represented by Paul Manafort in 1985.
  • Savimbi is a minor character in Call of Duty: Black Ops II, a video game released in 2012. He was voiced by Robert Wisdom.