Institutional Revolutionary Party
|“||Mexico is the perfect dictatorship, the perfect dictatorship is not communism, it is not the Soviet Union, it is not Fidel Castro, it is Mexico, because it is the dictatorship camouflaged in such a way that it may seem not to be a dictatorship, but in fact it has, if one digs, all the characteristics of a dictatorship, permanence, not of a man, but of a party...||„|
|~ Mario Vargas Llosa|
The Institutional Revolutionary Party, better known by its Spanish acronym, PRI (Partido Revolucionario Institucional), is a Mexican political party, being the most important in the recent history of the country.
The creation of the party was proposed by President Plutarco Elías Calles in 1928, as a party that would bring together the former members of the Mexican Revolution, which would be formed in 1929, under the name of "National Revolutionary Party" (Partido Revolucionario Nacional:PRN), the Which would soon become one of the most important political forces in the country, due to its socialist character and defender of workers' rights, gaining the support of many social sectors.
In 1938, the party underwent a change of leadership, which caused its name to change to "Party of the Mexican Revolution" (Partido de la Revolucion Mexicana: PRM), and in 1946, the name of the party was changed again to "Institutional Revolutionary Party", the which is still its current name.
It is from that moment, and largely due to the Cold War, that the PRI begins to change its focus, from being a left party that cared about the population, to a party more drawn to the right and with the objective of repressing the growing social movements, turning Mexico into a kind of dictatorship (although not officially so) until the end of the Cold War.
Starting in the late 1980s, the PRI experienced a great decline in popularity as a result of all the things that had happened in previous years, which ended up triggering that, in 2000, they lost the presidential elections against Vicente Fox of the National Action Party (Partido Accion Nacional: PAN), ending the 70-year uninterrupted cycle of the PRI government. In 2006 they again lost the elections against Felipe Calderón, also from the PAN, but in 2012 they again won the presidency with Enrique Peña Nieto, but in the last elections, those of 2018, they lost against Andrés Manuel Lopéz Obrador and his party National Regeneration Movement (Movimiento Regeneración Nacional: Morena).
During its history, the PRI has committed many acts of villainy, this can be seen in that, for example, it governed the country uninterruptedly for 70 years, apart from the fact that, until 1976, all the members of the Senate were from the PRI, and until 1989 All the governors of the states were members of the PRI. The reason why the PRI achieved all that control is mainly because of the harsh political repression they exercised, apart from multiple electoral fraud that facilitated their permanence in power. The most infamous instance was in 1988, when PRI-controlled media broadcasted fake polls to suppress opposing voters. When it was discovered that these polls were fake, the plug was pulled on the polling computer and PRI supporters went directly to the polls to intimidate their opposition.
Also, especially during the governments of Gustavo Díaz Ordaz and Luis Echeverría, the PRI committed many human rights violations in Mexico, ranging from torture, detentions, and assassinations, mainly against student and leftist movements. Even after the Cold War, during the PRI governments there continued to be numerous massacres perpetrated by the army. Also during the 1980s, the Mexican peso devalued a lot, causing an economic crisis and a lot of poverty.
The PRI has also been classified as one of the most corrupt parties in Mexico, due to many corruption events in its history. For example, in the state of Zacatecas, Governor Miguel Alonso Reyes were accused of buying votes through social programs, such as temporary jobs.