George Lincoln Rockwell
|“||I don't believe in democracy. In the second place, neither did our white forefathers. I believe, as they did, in a republican authoritarian republic with a limited electorate - just like the one the writers of our Constitution meant this country to be. When these white Christian patriots sat down to write the Declaration of Independence, there were no black citizens for them to worry about.||„|
|~ George Lincoln Rockwell|
George Lincoln Rockwell (March 9, 1918 – August 25, 1967) was an American politician, white supremacist, and neo-Nazi. In 1959, he was discharged from the United States Navy because of his political views and founded the American Nazi Party.
Rockwell denied the Holocaust and believed that Martin Luther King Jr. was a tool for Jewish Communists wanting to rule the white community. He blamed the civil rights movement on the Jews. He regarded Adolf Hitler as "the White savior of the twentieth century" and regarded blacks as a "primitive, lethargic race who desired only simple pleasures and a life of irresponsibility" and supported the resettlement of all African Americans in a new African state to be funded by the U.S. government.
As a supporter of racial segregation, he agreed with and quoted many leaders of the Black nationalism movement such as Elijah Muhammed and Malcolm X of the Nation of Islam. In later years, Rockwell became increasingly aligned with other neo-Nazi groups, leading the World Union of National Socialists.
On August 25, 1967, Rockwell was murdered in Arlington by John Patler, a disgruntled former member of his party.
In March 1959, Rockwell founded the World Union of Free Enterprise National Socialists (WUFENS), a name selected to denote opposition to state ownership of property. In December 1959, the organization was renamed the American Nazi Party (later the National Socialist White People's Party, NSWWP), and its headquarters was relocated to 928 North Randolph Street in Arlington, which also became Rockwell's home.
In 1959, he published an Animal Farm-type parody, the long-form poem The Fable of the Ducks and the Hens.
In 1960, as a result of his political activities, the Navy discharged Rockwell one year short of retirement because he was regarded as "not deployable" due to his political views. The proceedings to dismiss him were an extremely public affair. Even though he received an honorable discharge, Rockwell claimed he "had basically been thrown out of the Navy", for which he blamed the Jews.
In order to attract media attention, Rockwell held a rally on April 3, 1960 on the National Mall, where he addressed the crowd with a two-hour speech. A second rally was planned for Union Square in New York City. Mayor Robert F. Wagner Jr. refused to grant him a permit to speak, and he appealed that decision to the New York Supreme Court. When Rockwell emerged in the courthouse rotunda, he was surrounded by a crowd of television reporters. One of the reporters, Reese Schonfeld, interviewed Rockwell, and after Rockwell made anti-Semitic comments, a melee broke out, requiring a police convoy to escort Rockwell from the courthouse. Rockwell, with the aid of the American Civil Liberties Union, eventually won a permit, but it was long after the date of the planned event.
Another rally was set for July 4, 1960, again on the National Mall. Rockwell and his men were confronted by a mob and a riot ensued. The police arrested Rockwell and 8 party members. Rockwell demanded a trial, and instead, was committed to a psychiatric hospital for 30 days. In less than two weeks, he was released and found mentally competent to stand trial. He published a pamphlet inspired by this experience titled How to Get Out or Stay Out of the Insane Asylum.
In early 1962, Rockwell planned a rally to celebrate Hitler's birthday in April. In the summer, he attended a camp organized by British Neo-Nazi Colin Jordan in Gloucestershire where they organized the World Union of National Socialists. In September, he awarded one of his members a medal for punching Martin Luther King Jr. in the face.
In the 1964 United States presidential election, Rockwell ran as a write-in candidate, receiving 212 votes. He ran as an independent in the 1965 Virginia gubernatorial election, receiving 5,730 votes, or 1.02% of the total, finishing last among the four candidates.
In the summer of 1966, Rockwell led a counter-demonstration against Martin Luther King's attempt to bring an end to de facto segregation in the white Chicago suburb of Cicero, Illinois. He believed that King was a tool for Jewish Communists who wanted to integrate America. Rockwell believed that integration was a Jewish plot to rule the white community.
Rockwell led the American Nazi Party in assisting the Ku Klux Klan and similar organizations during the civil rights movement, in attempts to counter the Freedom Riders and the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom. But he soon came to believe that the Klan was stuck in the past and ineffective in helping him wage a modern racial struggle.
In 1966, after hearing the slogan "Black Power" during a debate with Black Panther Party leader Stokely Carmichael, Rockwell altered the phrase and started a call for "White Power".
In the spring of 1966, the party began publication of several pamphlets and books, including National Socialist World edited by William Luther Pierce, writings by Rockwell, the periodical Stormtrooper Magazine (originally National Socialist Bulletin), and a propaganda comic book, Here Comes Whiteman!, where the title superhero character battles enemies modeled after racist stereotypes.
In November 1966, the American Civil Liberties Union once again represented Rockwell, defending his right to stage marches or parades in Jewish neighborhoods during Jewish holidays.
- David Duke once described him as "the greatest American who ever lived."
- He was a supporter of the Christian Identity movement.
- He is considered a hero by many within the modern-day Alt-Right movement.
- Marlon Brando portrayed Rockwell in the television miniseries Roots: The Next Generations and won a Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Limited Series or Movie for his performance.
- He was influenced by Senator Joseph McCarthy's stance against communism.