|“||This is a white man's country, and the white men must govern it.||„|
|~ Benjamin Tillman|
In the 1880s, Tillman, a wealthy landowner, became dissatisfied with the Democratic leadership and led a movement of white farmers calling for reform. He was initially unsuccessful, though he was instrumental in the founding of Clemson University as an agricultural land-grant college. In 1890, Tillman took control of the state Democratic Party, and was elected governor. During his four years in office, 18 black Americans were lynched in South Carolina; in the 1890s the state had its highest number of lynchings of any decade. Tillman tried to prevent lynchings as governor, but also spoke in support of the lynch mobs, alleging his own willingness to lead one. In 1894, at the end of his second two-year term, he was elected to the U.S. Senate by vote of the state legislature, who elected senators at the time.
Tillman was known as "Pitchfork Ben" because of his aggressive language, as when he threatened to use a pitchfork to prod that "bag of beef," President Grover Cleveland. Considered a possible candidate for the Democratic nomination for president in 1896, Tillman lost any chance after giving a disastrous speech at the convention. He became known for his virulent oratory—especially against black Americans—but also for his effectiveness as a legislator. The first federal campaign finance law, banning corporate contributions, is commonly called the Tillman Act. Tillman was repeatedly re-elected, serving in the Senate for the rest of his life. One of his legacies was South Carolina's 1895 constitution, which disenfranchised most of the black majority and many poor whites, and ensured white Democratic Party rule for more than six decades into the twentieth century.
Tillman was born into a wealthy family of slave holders. He was a member of the Edgefield Hussars, one of the rifle clubs that arose in opposition to the Reconstruction-era Republican state government in South Carolina and that collectively evolved into the Red Shirts, the paramilitary arm of the state’s Democratic Party, which employed terrorist intimidation and violence in pursuit of its white supremacist agenda. One of his brothers died during the American Civil War while fighting as a Confederate soldier.
Throughout his political career, Tillman bragged about his participation in the Hamburg Massacre of July 1876, in which Red Shirts attacked a Black militia, overwhelming it and then executing several of its members.
As a Democrat, he emerged in politics during the 1880s as a spokesman for the interests of poor rural whites in South Carolina, which he argued were undermined by those of the ruling white (“Bourbon”) aristocracy as well as by the aspirations of the state’s African Americans and whites who shared them. The rise of Tillman coincided with the decline of the political fortunes of former Confederate general Wade Hampton, the state’s most prominent Bourbon.
Elected governor in 1890, Tillman translated his populist rhetoric into a number of concrete reforms. He shifted the tax burden to the wealthy, improved public education, founded the agricultural college later to be known as Clemson University, and regulated the railroads. He also played an instrumental role in rewriting the state constitution in 1895 to disenfranchise Blacks and circumvent the Fifteenth Amendment through a patchwork of Jim Crow laws. An unabashed racist who prominently championed white supremacy on the national stage, Tillman considered lynching an acceptable law-enforcement measure.
Elected to the U.S. Senate in 1894, Tillman served until his death, continuing to press for agrarian reform on the national level. He bitterly assailed Pres. Grover Cleveland for his hard-money policy, supporting instead the free-silver program of William Jennings Bryan.
In most instances, he opposed the administration of Pres. Theodore Roosevelt. In fact, the two became such bitter enemies that at one point the president barred Tillman from the White House. They put aside their differences long enough, however, to collaborate in securing passage of the Hepburn Act (1906), extending the Interstate Commerce Commission’s regulatory powers over the railroads. Tillman was floor leader for the bill.
He generally supported Pres. Woodrow Wilson and, as chairman of the Senate Naval Affairs Committee, promoted the administration’s program to strengthen the U.S. Navy. His vituperative and often profane attacks on his political opponents earned him the nickname “Pitchfork Ben”; he once had a fistfight with his South Carolina colleague on the floor of the Senate.