Beer Hall Putsch

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The main participants of the Beer Hall Putsch.

The Beer Hall Putsch was the first attempt by the Nazi Party to try and take control of the German government. It occurred from November 8 to November 9, 1923. Nazi Party leader Adolf Hitler lead the coup, and was assisted by multiple members of his inner circle, including Erich Ludendorff, Hermann Göring, Rudolf Hess, and Ernst Röhm.

Approximately two thousand Nazis, including members of their paramilitary force, the Sturmabteilung, were marching to the Feldherrnhalle, in the city center, when they were confronted by a police cordon, which resulted in the deaths of 16 Nazis and four police officers. Hitler, who was wounded during the clash, escaped immediate arrest and was spirited off to safety in the countryside. After two days, he was arrested and charged with treason

The putsch brought Hitler to the attention of the German nation and generated front-page headlines in newspapers around the world. His arrest was followed by a 24-day trial, which was widely publicised and gave him a platform to publicise his nationalist sentiment to the nation. Hitler was found guilty of treason and sentenced to five years in Landsberg Prison, where he dictated Mein Kampf to his fellow prisoners Emil Maurice and Rudolf Hess. On 20 December 1924, having served only nine months, Hitler was released. Once released, Hitler redirected his focus towards obtaining power through legal means rather than revolution or force, and accordingly changed his tactics, further.

The putsch might have drawn inspiration from the Kapp Putsch that occurred three years earlier.