Alphonse Massamba-Débat (February 11, 1921 - March 25, 1977) was a politician from the Republic of the Congo between 1963 and 1968.
On August 15, 1963, the military leaders Mountsaka and Mouzabakani called Alphonse Massamba-Debate to power. He became head of the provisional government and formed a small cabinet consisting of Antoine Maboungou-Mbiba, Germain Bicoumat, Bernard Galiba, Pascal Lissouba, Paul Kaya, Charles David Ganao, Édouard Ebouka-Babackas, and Jules Kounkound.
On December 8, 1963, the new constitution is adopted by referendum. It establishes a National Council of the Revolution (CNR), chaired by the President of the Republic. It provides, in addition to the role of President of the Republic, that of Prime Minister, head of government.
On December 19, he is the only candidate in the presidential election. 100% of the votes cast are elected. On December 24, 1963, he published the list of members of his government, within which Pascal Lissouba became Prime Minister.
In August 1964, the National Revolutionary Movement (MNR) was created and established as a single party. Massamba-Débat is the general secretary.
The culmination of this atmosphere of "terror" is the kidnapping and murder in February 1965 of three judicial personalities whose positions are not to the liking of the regime, the president of the Supreme Court Joseph Pouabou, the prosecutor Lazare Matsocota and the director of the Congolese Information Agency Anselme Massoueme to whom their degree of participation cannot be corroborated.
The ideology of his regime was on the left and the Congo was closing in on countries of a socialist nature, especially Cuba and China, while moving away from capitalist countries. Che Guevara comes to meet Massamba-Débat in January 1965. Diplomatic relations were severed with the United States. Relations are strained with the neighboring Democratic Republic of the Congo, whose political path is increasingly influenced by mobutist ambitions. Consequently, the Tshombe government expels the citizens of Congo-Brazzaville who live in the former Belgian Congo.
The popular base in Massamba-Debate is uncertain from the start, because some of the citizens of the Pool region, where the first two presidents of the Congo come from, accuse him of having replaced Youlou at the head of the country. The brutality of the militias makes the regime unpopular. Massamba-Débat, becomes increasingly isolated. Ideological contradictions (Bantu socialism versus scientific socialism) and struggles between factions, mainly between the pro-lissouba and the pro-noumazalaye; Attempts by the right-wing opposition (Mouzabakani, Kolelas, Kinganga) and activism by progressive officers, led by Captain Ngouabi, weakened Massamba-Débat.
On April 26, 1966, he appointed a new government. Ambroise Noumazalaye becomes Prime Minister to replace Lissouba. A dull fight ensues between the President and his Prime Minister over ideological options, corporate nationalization policy, and diplomacy.
In July 1968, before the dispute arose, he arrested Captain Ngouabi, dissolved the National Assembly and the MNR political office, and suspended the 1963 Constitution. This resulted in a confrontation between his supporters in Civil Defense and an army party. . He was then forced to forgive all political prisoners and deal with his opponents.
Following the bloodless blood coup of 1968, Massamba-Débat was forced to abandon politics and Massamba-Débat returned to his hometown. A few hours after the murder of the one who deposed him, Massamba-Débat was placed under arrest. When Ngouabi was assassinated in 1977, many people were arrested and tried for planning the murder, including Massamba-Débat. Massamba-Débat was executed on the night of March 25, 1977, by firing squad. Some suspect that the unfounded allegations were fraudulent with a certain political bias, however his legacy was rehabilitated in 1991 and the massamba-debate stadium bears his name.