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- January 1 - The People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan is founded by Nur Muhammad Taraki and Babrak Karmal.
- February 21 - Malcolm X is assassinated by Nation of Islam member Thomas Hagan while preparing to address the OAAU in Manhattan's Audubon Ballroom.
- March 7 - Bloody Sunday: some 200 Alabama State Troopers, acting on orders from county sheriff Jim Clark, attack 525 civil rights demonstrators in Selma, Alabama, as they attempt to march to the state capitol of Montgomery.
- March 10 - Beginning of the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965.
- March 22 - Nicolae Ceaușescu is named General Secretary of the Communist Party of Romania.
- March 25 - Civil rights activist Viola Liuzzo is assassinated in Selma, Alabama by four members of the United Klans of America, the dominant faction of the Ku Klux Klan at the time.
- April - Hồ Chí Minh steps down from his leadership positions with the Communist Party of Vietnam, ceding power to Lê Duẩn.
- September 5 - The People's Mujahedin of Iran is founded.
- September 23 - End of the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965.
- September 30 - The Indonesian mass killings of 1965–66 are ordered by President Sukarno in response to an attempted coup by a group of Army officers.
- October 3 - The Communist Party of Cuba is founded by Fidel Castro.
- November 25 - Mobutu Sese Seko seizes power in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in a bloodless coup. End of the Congo Crisis.
- December 30 - Ferdinand Marcos is elected President of the Philippines.
- January 14 - Shamil Basayev
- January 22 - Vasil Iliev
- February 8 - Fares Mana'a
- February 15 - Héctor Beltrán Leyva
- March 15 - Milorad Ulemek
- April 5 - Debra Denison
- April 15 - Joseph Druce
- April 19 - Suge Knight
- April 24 - Amy Bishop
- May 2 - Hüseyin Sözlü
- May 16 - Carlos Castaño Gil
- May 17 - Richard Baumhammers
- May 25 - Yahya Jammeh
- July 14 - Mine Ener
- September 11 - Bashar al-Assad
- September 14 - Dmitry Medvedev
- October 25 - Maury Travis
- Unknown - Abdullah Shah
- February 16 - Robin Murray O'Hair
- July 29 - Helen McCourt
- December 14 - Amy Sweeney
- February 21 - Malcolm X
- March 3 - Vincas Vitkauskas
- March 18 - Farouk of Egypt
- June 2 - Nannie Doss
- July 19 - Syngman Rhee
- March 25 - Viola Liuzzo
- October 26 - Sylvia Likens