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- January 28 - The 1918 Porvenir Massacre takes place when Texas Rangers, U.S. Cavalry soldiers, and local ranchers killed 15 unarmed Mexican villagers, both men and boys.
- March 3 - The Central Powers and Bolshevist Russia sign the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, ending Russia's involvement in World War I.
- May 23 - The Axeman of New Orleans commits his first confirmed murder when he breaks into the home of Joseph and Catherine Maggio, killing them both.
- July 16 to 17 - The Execution of the Romanov family: deposed Tsar Nicholas II, his wife, and five children are executed by Bolsheviks on the orders of Vladimir Lenin.
- August 30 - Vladimir Lenin survives an assassination attempt after being shot by a Jewish woman named Fanny Kaplan at an arms factory in south Moscow.
- September 3 - Beginning of the Red Terror in Russia.
- October - The Communist Party of Lithuania is founded.
- October 4 - Enver Pasha is dismissed as Ottoman Minister of War.
- October 8 - Talaat Pasha is removed as Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire, ending the Young Turks' control of the empire.
- November 9 - Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicates as German Emperor.
- December 14 - President of Portugal Sidónio Pais is assassinated in Lisbon by left-wing political activist José Júlio da Costa.
- December 30 - The Communist Party of Germany is founded.
- January 15 - Gamal Abdel Nasser
- January 26 - Nicolae Ceaușescu
- February 23 - Richard Girnt Butler
- March 9 - George Lincoln Rockwell
- March 27 - Bronius Urbanavicius
- May 2 - Julius Rosenberg
- June 15 - François Tombalbaye
- December 25 - Anwar Sadat
- February 10 - Abdul Hamid II
- March 1 - Jacob H. Smith
- April 28 - Gavrilo Princip
- July 3 - Benjamin Tillman
- July 17 - Nicholas II
- February 8 - Jim McIlherron
- May 23 - Joseph and Catherine Maggio
- December 14 - Sidónio Pais